Tag Archives: Study

Dr. Michael Mullans New Book Unveils Revolutionary Addiction Study


COALINGA, Calif. (PRWEB) December 11, 2014

Author and licensed clinical psychologist Dr. Michael Mullan says he frequently saw patients fall back into addiction early on in his career. His interest was piqued when he saw a 43-year-old medical doctor suffering from chronic addiction and depression. What Mullan didn’t realize was just how important the doctor’s case would be.

Mullan, now retired, brings his knowledge and experience to readers in his new book “Integrative Dual Diagnosis Treatment Approach to an Individual with Alcoholism and Coexisting Endogenous Depression” (published by iUniverse), in which he discusses the mental aspect of addiction and the breakthrough study done on the 43-year-old doctor.

In his book, Mullan discusses the case of the doctor in depth. During this study, Mullan came to recognize the full weight of mental illness’ role in addiction. Mullan says this detail was previously not being addressed in other addiction patients, which is why many of them relapsed. By treating the patient for both a mental illness and addiction, Mullan was confident the success rate would increase.

“When I was working in the field of addiction, I saw so many people relapsing; I saw so many people going back to the addiction,” Mullan says. “Many people with addiction are only treated for addiction and both have to be treated in order to have a successful treatment.”

Integrative Dual Diagnosis Treatment Approach to an Individual with Alcoholism and Coexisting Endogenous Depression

By Dr. Michael Mullan

Hardcover | 5.5 x 8.5 in | 108 pages | ISBN 9781491736678

Softcover | 5.5 x 8.5 in | 108 pages | ISBN 9781491736685

E-Book | 108 pages | ISBN 9781491736661

Available at Amazon and Barnes & Noble

About the Author

Dr. Michael Mullan is a licensed clinical psychologist who recently retired from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. He was a pioneer in the field of dual-diagnosis treatment for alcoholics and drug-addicted individuals with co-existing mental illnesses. Mullan and his wife live in Coalinga, where he currently works for Adventist Health community care.

iUniverse, an Author Solutions, LLC, self-publishing imprint, is the leading book marketing, editorial services, and supported self-publishing provider. iUniverse has a strategic alliance with Indigo Books & Music, Inc. in Canada, and titles accepted into the iUniverse Rising Star program are featured in a special collection on BarnesandNoble.com. iUniverse recognizes excellence in book publishing through the Star, Reader’s Choice, Rising Star and Editor’s Choice designations—self-publishing’s only such awards program. Headquartered in Bloomington, Indiana, iUniverse also operates offices in Indianapolis. For more information or to publish a book, please visit iuniverse.com or call 1-800-AUTHORS. For the latest, follow @iuniversebooks on Twitter.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







UC Davis study finds firearm violence trends in the 21st century

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (PRWEB) December 16, 2014

While the overall death rate from firearm violence has remained unchanged for more than a decade, the patterns for suicide and homicide have changed dramatically, a UC Davis study on the epidemiology of gun violence from 2003 to 2012 has found. The study was posted online in the Annual Review of Public Health on Dec. 12 and will appear in the print edition in January.

“Suicide by firearm is far more common than homicide,” said Garen J. Wintemute, professor of emergency medicine and director of the Violence Prevention Research Program at UC Davis. “Over the past 30 years, firearm suicides have exceeded homicides even when homicide rates were at their highest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. But, since 2006, the gap between the two has been widening, with firearm homicides decreasing and suicides increasing.”

In 2012, nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of deaths from firearm violence were suicides, compared to 57 percent of deaths in 2006. The growth in suicide is especially prominent among white males beginning in early adulthood, Wintemute said.

After analyzing the data for firearm homicides and suicides by age, gender and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found other emerging patterns. For example, homicides among black men and women rose steeply in adolescence and peaked in early adulthood before falling steadily thereafter. In contrast, suicide rates among white men increased in adolescence but continued to rise throughout the lifespan.

When assessing the number of deaths from firearm violence in 2012 for males by age and race/ethnicity, Wintemute found that 88.7 percent of all deaths among black males aged 15 to 44 were caused by homicide and that 89.2 percent of deaths among white males aged 35 to 64 were from suicide. When he corrected for population growth in both groups, he found that the rate of death among white males aged 35 to 64 had increased by 29.1 percent.

“Suicides among white males accounted for nearly half of the deaths from firearm violence during 2012, and suicide among white men is increasing,” Wintemute said. “The increase offsets any decline we might have seen in overall firearm-related mortality during the 21st century.”

Firearm homicide: Young blacks at high risk

As previous public-health studies have shown, homicides are concentrated to a remarkable degree among black males through much of the lifespan, with rates rising at adolescence and peaking at ages 20 to 24.

“The overall death rate from firearm violence in young black males is very high, and there has been little net change since 1999,” Wintemute said.

Firearm homicides among black males aged 20 to 29 are five times higher than those among Hispanic males and at least 20 times higher than for white males. Homicide rates for black females are also higher than rates for Hispanics and whites.

In 2012, firearm homicides were the leading cause of death for black men ages 15 to 24. Among white men, Hispanic men, and black women in that age range, firearm violence ranked second after unintentional injuries.

Firearm suicide: White males and females at higher risk

The data show that suicides are concentrated among whites, with the risk among white men steadily increasing throughout their lifespans and steeply rising from ages 70 to 74. By 85 and older, suicide for white males was 3.2 times that of Hispanic males and five times that of black males.

Suicide risk among white females, while occurring at a lower rate than white males, also shows steady increases from ages 10 to 14 through ages 45 and 49. The suicide rates for white females also were higher than for black or Hispanic females of all ages.

“Contrary to popular belief, mental illness by itself is not a leading contributor to interpersonal firearm violence,” Wintemute said. “But mental illness, chiefly depression, is an important contributor to risk for suicide.”

Risk factors for firearm violence

According to the General Social Survey, more than 50 million people in the U.S. own firearms. Firearm ownership increases risk of firearm homicide or suicide at the population, household and individual levels, Wintemute said.

“Focusing on known risk factors and predictors for firearm violence can have a broad impact,” Wintemute said. “We know alcohol and controlled substance abuse are important predictors of future risk for violence directed at others or at oneself, whether or not mental illness is also present.”

Many studies have shown that a prior history of violence also strongly predicts future violence. Wintemute’s substantial body of work also has demonstrated effective interventions to reduce gun violence, such as prohibiting persons convicted of violence misdemeanor crimes such as assault and battery from purchasing firearms.

“With additional research, we can identify other interventions that can reduce firearm violence, which is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year,” Wintemute said.

The Violence Prevention Research Program is an organized research program of the University of California, Davis, that conducts leading-edge research to further America’s efforts to understand and prevent violence. Since its founding, the program has produced a uniquely rich and informative body of research on the causes, nature and prevention of violence, especially firearm violence. Current areas of emphasis include the prediction of criminal behavior, the effectiveness of waiting period and background-check programs for prospective purchasers of firearms, and the determinants of firearm violence.







A Recent Study Shows that 91% of iPhone Users are Getting by on a Minimal Level of Storage, and 22% of All Smartphone Users are Running Out of Space on a Monthly Basis


London, UK and San Francisco, CA (PRWEB) December 15, 2014

* Smartphone storage is a major issue *

IceCream / Ondevice Research surveyed 1,000 people in the USA and UK in December 2014 and gathered data from O2/Telefonica about the last one million iPhones they sold. The goal of the survey was to gauge the type and severity of problems users were experiencing with their camera and photo apps, and their smartphone’s storage. This research discovered 45% of users are running out of storage every year; 22% are running out at least every month; and almost 10% run out of space daily.

It seems that photos are clearly the culprit: 40% of women run out of space specifically because they take too many photos. Of all the functions on the iPhone, it’s the camera is the most personal, and it is also the main source of storage problems.

Data from Telefonica/O2 of last one million iPhones sold in the UK showed that 91% are either 8GB or 16GB. Data from the IceCream / Ondevice Research for US and UK users shows 76% as having 16GB or under (or not known). It seems like that amount is inadequate. Take the case of an 8GB iPhone model, with around 6.4GB of usable storage after the operating system is accounted for. With no other apps, music, email, notes or videos, it can hold 2,500 photos. But given that the typical user also needs space for email, games and music, the available space for photos is reduced to around 1000 shots. That’s not a big number.

People experienced precisely this problem when iOS 8 was released. Apple required that people have 5GB of spare space to update, and a majority of users just didn’t have that. They were forced to delete other apps, or photos, to free up the required space.

According to the research, 76% of the 600 million iPhone users own phones of 16GB and under. That equates to 456 million people who are experiencing significant problems on a regular basis.

“20% of people have deleted photos by mistake” (source: IceCream / Ondevice Research Study, December 2014)


Deleting photos is a hassle *

1 in 5 people have lost memories they wanted to keep according to the study. The default camera and photo apps currently make it too easy for people to make mistakes while managing their photos.

Photo burnout is a real phenomenon *

“1 in 6 people have no idea how many photos they have” (source: IceCream / Ondevice Research Study, December 2014)

The survey found that 41% of people have over 500 photos on their handset – quite a few, but not unusual. The data also said that one in six people have no idea how many photos they have on their phones. Could it be that people are taking too many photos? Are they becoming disengaged?

Nearly a quarter of people stated that they suffer from photo burnout because they’ll never have the time to review all their photos. It doesn’t come as a surprise that 23% of people who have deleted photos by mistake haven’t backed up, either.

An October 2014 study published in PsychologicalScience (http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/no-pictures-please-taking-photos-may-impede-memory-of-museum-tour.html) revealed that the act of taking photographs has a memory impairment effect: if someone takes a photo of an object, they tend to remember less about that object than someone who just observes it.

The papers’ author told Vice.com: “If you look at the photos later on, they’ll serve as wonderful retrieval cues. But the truth is that we don’t look at those photos.” In other words: if people have a camera app that isn’t delivering a great experience, people are not going to relive their memories. That is potentially cause for concern.

The global memory experiment *

Apple has given over 600 million iPhone users a way to record their joy of memories, the stuff that defines us as individuals. 52% of respondents said they wanted a better way to organise and review photos. Even people with fewer than 1,000 photos on their iPhone want to improve it: it’s not just the outliers. The current generation is going to have every moment of their life stored and recorded somewhere.

What are people asking for? *

Users are saying that storage, organisation and sharing of photographs need to be improved. Over half of smartphone users want automatic photo back up. Despite the boom of basic, and usually free, cloud packages, 64% of users want more storage space. Even when people have over 64GB of storage, they still want more. In fact, when the study asked people how much more, they replied that 90% more would do.

60% of women want safer and more private ways to share photos. The study shows that the more photos people have, the more they share: 45% of people with over 5000 photos on their phone shared over 40 shots a week.

So here’s why a better camera app will help *

The long-standing camera app isn’t helping people out of their smartphone storage crisis. That’s the goal of IceCream: it’s a clever camera app that never runs out of space because it keeps beautiful, optimised photos on the phone for offline browsing – saving 90% of your storage space on the phone. The full-resolution shots are stored automatically on the IceCream cloud, ready to share instantly. Of course, there’s a few more significant features that are being kept quiet about for now. The company’s focus is to create a single, elegant solution that people want.

Join the debate and visit the “Why is my Smartphone Storage Full Again? Survey”:

https://givemeicecream.typeform.com/to/W8SHfe

George Berkowski

Co-founder / CEO

IceCream

https://givemeicecream.com







A Recent Study Shows that 91% of iPhone Users are Getting by on a Minimal Level of Storage, and 22% of All Smartphone Users are Running Out of Space on a Monthly Basis


London, UK and San Francisco, CA (PRWEB) December 15, 2014

* Smartphone storage is a major issue *

IceCream / Ondevice Research surveyed 1,000 people in the USA and UK in December 2014 and gathered data from O2/Telefonica about the last one million iPhones they sold. The goal of the survey was to gauge the type and severity of problems users were experiencing with their camera and photo apps, and their smartphone’s storage. This research discovered 45% of users are running out of storage every year; 22% are running out at least every month; and almost 10% run out of space daily.

It seems that photos are clearly the culprit: 40% of women run out of space specifically because they take too many photos. Of all the functions on the iPhone, it’s the camera is the most personal, and it is also the main source of storage problems.

Data from Telefonica/O2 of last one million iPhones sold in the UK showed that 91% are either 8GB or 16GB. Data from the IceCream / Ondevice Research for US and UK users shows 76% as having 16GB or under (or not known). It seems like that amount is inadequate. Take the case of an 8GB iPhone model, with around 6.4GB of usable storage after the operating system is accounted for. With no other apps, music, email, notes or videos, it can hold 2,500 photos. But given that the typical user also needs space for email, games and music, the available space for photos is reduced to around 1000 shots. That’s not a big number.

People experienced precisely this problem when iOS 8 was released. Apple required that people have 5GB of spare space to update, and a majority of users just didn’t have that. They were forced to delete other apps, or photos, to free up the required space.

According to the research, 76% of the 600 million iPhone users own phones of 16GB and under. That equates to 456 million people who are experiencing significant problems on a regular basis.

“20% of people have deleted photos by mistake” (source: IceCream / Ondevice Research Study, December 2014)


Deleting photos is a hassle *

1 in 5 people have lost memories they wanted to keep according to the study. The default camera and photo apps currently make it too easy for people to make mistakes while managing their photos.

Photo burnout is a real phenomenon *

“1 in 6 people have no idea how many photos they have” (source: IceCream / Ondevice Research Study, December 2014)

The survey found that 41% of people have over 500 photos on their handset – quite a few, but not unusual. The data also said that one in six people have no idea how many photos they have on their phones. Could it be that people are taking too many photos? Are they becoming disengaged?

Nearly a quarter of people stated that they suffer from photo burnout because they’ll never have the time to review all their photos. It doesn’t come as a surprise that 23% of people who have deleted photos by mistake haven’t backed up, either.

An October 2014 study published in PsychologicalScience (http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/no-pictures-please-taking-photos-may-impede-memory-of-museum-tour.html) revealed that the act of taking photographs has a memory impairment effect: if someone takes a photo of an object, they tend to remember less about that object than someone who just observes it.

The papers’ author told Vice.com: “If you look at the photos later on, they’ll serve as wonderful retrieval cues. But the truth is that we don’t look at those photos.” In other words: if people have a camera app that isn’t delivering a great experience, people are not going to relive their memories. That is potentially cause for concern.

The global memory experiment *

Apple has given over 600 million iPhone users a way to record their joy of memories, the stuff that defines us as individuals. 52% of respondents said they wanted a better way to organise and review photos. Even people with fewer than 1,000 photos on their iPhone want to improve it: it’s not just the outliers. The current generation is going to have every moment of their life stored and recorded somewhere.

What are people asking for? *

Users are saying that storage, organisation and sharing of photographs need to be improved. Over half of smartphone users want automatic photo back up. Despite the boom of basic, and usually free, cloud packages, 64% of users want more storage space. Even when people have over 64GB of storage, they still want more. In fact, when the study asked people how much more, they replied that 90% more would do.

60% of women want safer and more private ways to share photos. The study shows that the more photos people have, the more they share: 45% of people with over 5000 photos on their phone shared over 40 shots a week.

So here’s why a better camera app will help *

The long-standing camera app isn’t helping people out of their smartphone storage crisis. That’s the goal of IceCream: it’s a clever camera app that never runs out of space because it keeps beautiful, optimised photos on the phone for offline browsing – saving 90% of your storage space on the phone. The full-resolution shots are stored automatically on the IceCream cloud, ready to share instantly. Of course, there’s a few more significant features that are being kept quiet about for now. The company’s focus is to create a single, elegant solution that people want.

Join the debate and visit the “Why is my Smartphone Storage Full Again? Survey”:

https://givemeicecream.typeform.com/to/W8SHfe

George Berkowski

Co-founder / CEO

IceCream

https://givemeicecream.com